While the fields of online and hybrid learning have received much media attention recently, many have spent decades of researching, developing and refining strategies for effective digital instruction. Those with a history in the field have come to recognize the contribution of several varied disciplines - data mining & analytics, learning theory, educational technology, evaluation, and games & simulations - in creating rich, scalable digital learning experiences. Experts and EducationXPress community members have identified their ‘short list’ or recommended reading in their respective disciplines to share the best of their fields with you. For your convenience, these seminal readings have been compiled in our Reading List with the intent of providing those new to these varied disciplines the best of the current and historical writing in each of the areas critical to success in online and hybrid learning.

Publish Date
Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success
A. W. Bates, Gary Poole
The aim of this book is to assist instructors to make the best use of technology for teaching in post-secondary education. To do this, the book explores the fundamental educational and organizational principles that should drive the use of technology for teaching. These principles and the authors’ extensive experience of teaching and technology, form the foundation for guidance on how best to...
Deconstructing Disengagement: Analyzing Learner Subpopulations in Massive Open Online Courses
Rene Kizilcec, Chris Piech, Emily Schneider
As MOOCs grow in popularity, the relatively low completion rates of learners has been a central criticism. This focus on completion rates, however, reflects a monolithic view of disengagement that does not allow MOOC designers to target interventions or develop adaptive course features for particular subpopulations of learners. To address this, this paper presents a simple, scalable, and...
Blended Learning: The Proof and the Promise
Salman Khan, Sandy Speicher, Stacey Brewer
Can the use of technology radically improve educational quality and access globally? Finally, after years of hype, there is exciting progress in applying technology to deliver scalable, high quality education, even to those in some of the world’s most challenging environments. Engage with leading innovators to explore what is working in classrooms and at home, how successful solutions can be...
Diversity in MOOC Students’ Backgrounds and Behaviors in Relationship to Performance in 6.002x
Jennifer DeBoer, Glenda Stump, Lori Breslow, Daniel Seaton
The first edX course had over 150,000 students enrolled, which included registrants from nearly every country in the world, bringing with them massive international diversity. These students were also diverse in a number of background characteristics. To augment the behavioral and geographical location data available from edX clickstream data, the authors gathered detailed individual background...
A Guide to Quality in Online Learning
What constitutes quality when it comes to online learning? Existing quality assurance frameworks, guidelines, and benchmarks show that quality in online learning has many dimensions. But we can distill these into a number of common issues to which practitioners and students should attend.
Current Status of Research on Online Learning in Postsecondary Education
Kelly A. Lack
It is unfortunately the case that there have been few rigorous efforts to produce compelling evidence of the learning outcomes associated with online courses at the postsecondary level. While the presence of various forms of online learning has expanded rapidly over the past decade, the field has proliferated largely on the proverbial “wing and a prayer.” This is not to suggest that the future of...
New Technology-Based Models for Postsecondary Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Research Agendas
Working Group on Postsecondary Learning
Report of a National Science Foundation-sponsored Computing Research Association workshop held at MIT on January 9-11, 2013.
Connected Learning: An Agenda for Research and Design
Mizuko Ito, Kris Gutiérrez, Sonia Livingstone, Bill Penuel, Jean Rhodes, Katie Salen, Juliet Schor, Julian Sefton-Green, S. Craig Watkins
This report is a synthesis of ongoing research, design, and implementation of an approach to education called “connected learning.” It advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Connected learning is realized when a young person is able to pursue a personal interest or passion with the...
Interactive Learning Online at Public Universities: Evidence from Randomized Trials
William Bowen, Matthew M. Chingos, Kelly A. Lack, Thomas I. Nygren
Higher education is facing serious challenges in the United States.
Classifying K-12 Blended Learning
Heather Staker, Michael B. Horn
As blended learning continues to expand across the K–12 sector, definitions are important to help people talk about the new phenomenon. This white paper refines the authors' previous work in helping to create a shared language for the emerging field so that innovators can build upon each other’s ideas, rather than talk past each other.